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How to Become a Forensic Scientist – Education & Skills

how to become a forensic scientist

Does the world of forensic science fascinate you? Do you want to become a forensic scientist? If you’re interested in a career in forensic science, you’re probably wondering what steps to take.

There are various paths that you can pursue to enter this field, but not all of them are created equal. To become a successful forensic scientist, you need education, skills, and experience. But how can you set yourself up for success in this exciting field?

Fortunately, we’re here to help. This guide will cover all the vital information you need to know about becoming a forensic scientist, including the education required, relevant skills and experience, potential career paths, and more.

Who is a Forensic Scientist?

A forensic scientist uses their scientific knowledge to help solve crimes. Law enforcement agencies often employ forensic scientists, but they may also work for private companies or independent consultants. Forensic scientists use their skills in many different ways, but their ultimate goal is always the same: to use science to find the truth.

What Does a Forensic Scientist Do?

There are several responsibilities forensic scientists have in their job. We’ve outlined just a few of those below:

1. Collect and analyze evidence from crime scenes

This task includes everything from taking photographs, collecting fingerprints, and examining blood and tissue samples to using advanced lab equipment like DNA sequencers and mass spectrometers.

2. Interpret evidence

Forensic scientists must be able to interpret the data they collect to offer explanations for how and why certain events transpired. This interpretation must be backed up by scientific evidence.

3. Communicate findings to the police, lawyers, and other stakeholders

An essential part of a forensic scientist’s job is communicating their results to those who will use them in criminal investigations and court proceedings. This communication must be clear, concise, and accurate.

4. Testify in court

Forensic scientists may need to testify in court about their findings and interpretation of evidence. This testimony can be crucial in determining the outcome of a criminal case.

5. Maintain accurate records

Forensic scientists must maintain accurate and complete records of all their work. This data may be helpful as evidence in criminal investigations and court proceedings.

6. Visit crime scenes

Forensic scientists often visit crime scenes to collect evidence and better understand what happened. This work can be dangerous, so forensic scientists need to take precautions to protect themselves.

7. Supervise and review their team’s work

Forensic scientists typically work in groups and must be able to supervise the work of their team members. They also need to check everyone’s findings for accuracy and inclusiveness.

8. Keep up with the latest advancements in science

Since forensics is constantly evolving, forensic scientists need to keep up with the latest scientific advances. Professionals can attend conferences, read research papers, and take continuing education courses.

Forensic scientists have various responsibilities, as outlined above. Therefore, it’s crucial to have strong problem-solving, analytical, and communication skills if you’re interested in this career. You must also be detail-oriented and able to work well under pressure. There is often time pressure to solve cases.

If you think you have the skills and dedication to be a forensic scientist, read on to learn about the education and training required for this career.

Types of Forensic Scientists

Forensic scientists work in various fields of forensic science. Due to this, forensic scientists are categorized based on their area of specialization. The main areas of forensic science are:

1. Anthropology

Anthropology forensic scientists work on the recovery and identification of human remains. They will use scientific methods to estimate the age, height, weight, and other characteristics of a victim. A forensic anthropologist may also examine bones for signs of trauma or disease to determine the cause of death.

2. Criminalistics

Understanding evidence is a crucial part of solving crimes. Criminalistics experts use their expertise to solve this problem. Criminalistics forensic scientists examine evidence collected at a crime scene to determine whether it belongs to a specific person or object. They do this using scientific methods such as DNA analysis and comparison, chemical testing for trace evidence, fingerprint and hair analysis, and blood spatter pattern analysis.

3. Engineering and Applied Sciences

An engineering and applied sciences forensic scientist can help when a crime involves machines or other objects. These experts use their knowledge of physics, mechanics, and materials to examine evidence such as weapons, tool marks, and tire tracks. They may also analyze how a fire started, spread, and damaged a building.

4. Digital Forensics

Digital forensics experts specialize in retrieving and analyzing data from computers, cell phones, and other devices. They can extract information about a crime, such as emails sent before or after the event, deleted text messages, or websites visited. In some cases, digital forensic scientists may also be able to reconstruct a crime scene based on data from a crime scene camera or surveillance footage.

5. Odontology

When a cause of death is unknown or violent, an odontologist – also known as a forensic dentist – may be called to help. Odontologists may perform dental identification on human remains to match them with missing person reports. They can also examine bite marks and other markings on the body for clues about the cause of death or the assailant’s identity.

6. Pathology

Pathology deals with the study of disease. Forensic pathologists use this knowledge to help solve crimes. Forensic pathologists examine bodies to determine the cause of death. They will also look for signs of trauma or disease that may help solve a crime.

7. Questioned Documents

Questioned documents experts use their knowledge of handwriting, typewriters, and printers to examine documents for evidence of fraud or forgery. They may also determine the author of a paper or when someone wrote something.

8. Trace Evidence

Trace evidence experts analyze minute amounts of evidence that may help solve a crime. They use various scientific methods to examine hair, fibers, glass, paint, and soil evidence. By understanding the properties of these different materials, trace evidence experts can help link a suspect to a crime scene or victim.

9. Toxicology

Toxicology is the study of toxic substances. The most common forms of toxicity result from chemicals that people use in everyday life or other poisonous plants and animals. Toxicologists can help solve a crime in two ways. First, they may examine a body for evidence of poisoning. Second, they may analyze blood samples or other tissues to determine the presence of toxins.

10. Psychology / Behavioral Science

Psychology is the study of human behavior. Forensic psychologists use this knowledge to help solve crimes by understanding suspects’ and victims’ motivations, beliefs, and thought processes.

Forensic psychologists analyze crime scenes and interview witnesses to gather information about potential suspects or motives for a crime. They also testify as expert witnesses in court cases, providing insight into criminal responsibility and mental illness issues.

How to Become a Forensic Scientist – Step-by-Step Guide

To begin your career as a forensic scientist, you will need first to complete an undergraduate degree. Undergraduate degrees in forensics or a related scientific field such as biology, chemistry, physics, or math are ideal. A bachelor’s degree is the most basic education needed before pursuing more specialized and advanced education to become a forensic scientist.

Here are more detailed steps to take to become a forensic scientist:

Step 1: Get an Associate’s Degree in a Forensic Science Program

Getting an associate’s degree in a forensic science program is a great way to lay the groundwork for your future career as a forensic scientist.

At this level, you will learn about the basic science principles that form the foundation of forensic research and investigation. Essential skills include crime scene investigation and handling ethical issues in forensics, criminal law, and statistics. Moreover, you’ll acquire critical thinking, data analysis, and communication abilities to work with a team to solve crimes effectively.

Step 2: Get a Bachelor’s Degree in Forensics or a Related Field

While this isn’t necessary to become a forensic scientist, most employers expect it.

Bachelor’s degrees in forensic science, biology, chemistry, or physics provide students with an in-depth education on the scientific principles at the foundation of forensic research and investigation.

These programs also offer students the opportunity to gain practical experience through internships and laboratory work. The best part about getting a bachelor’s degree in forensics is that it prepares you for various career paths beyond becoming a forensic scientist. Moreover, employers often prefer candidates with a bachelor’s degree, and those with higher education tend to earn more money.

Step 3: Complete an Internship in a Forensic Science Laboratory, Police Department, or Similar Environment

Internships will allow students and recent graduates to work alongside trained forensic scientists and law enforcement officials within their chosen branch of forensics. For example, suppose a graduate wishes to pursue a crime scene investigation career. In that case, they may decide to complete an internship with a local police department.

While working at the police station, they would be able to observe crime scene investigations and possibly participate in some aspects of this work themselves, such as fingerprint analysis. Working in forensic science labs is another option for graduates who want to gain experience. Students can complete internships in toxicology, pathology, and psychology labs depending on their chosen specialty. By doing so, they will understand how scientists use laboratory equipment to test evidence and establish facts.

Step 4: Become Certified as a Forensic Scientist

Certification is the next step to becoming a forensic scientist. Certification is voluntary, but it can help improve your career prospects and earning potential. Several professional organizations offer certification, including:

  • American Board of Criminalistics (ABC)
  • American Academy of Forensic Sciences (AAFS)
  • Crime Scene Certification Board, International Association for Identification (IAI)
  • International Board of Forensic Engineering Sciences (IBFES)
  • American Board of Medicolegal Death Investigators (ABMDI)
  • American Board of Forensic Anthropology (ABFA)

To be eligible for certification, you will need to have a minimum of a bachelor’s degree in a field related to forensic science, and you will need to pass an exam. Certification lasts for five years and can be renewed by taking additional exams or completing continuing education courses.

Step 5: Find a Job and Start Working as a Forensic Scientist!

The final step to becoming a forensic scientist is to find employment. Some key ways to find jobs are to network with other professionals in the field, attend job fairs, and search online job boards. Many forensic scientists work for government agencies, but a growing number of private firms offer forensic services.

Once you’ve landed a job, it’s essential to keep up with the latest developments in the field. You can do this by studying professional journals, attending conferences, and pursuing continuing education opportunities.

With hard work and dedication, you can become a successful forensic scientist and help solve crimes!

Step 6: Maintain Your Certification with Continued Education and Training

It’s essential to keep up with the latest developments in the field to maintain your certification as a forensic scientist. You can take continuing education courses and attend conferences or training seminars. Many professionals also choose to pursue advanced degrees to stay competitive and advance their careers.

Essential Skills for Forensic Scientists

Forensic scientists need to possess several skills and characteristics to succeed. Some of these skills include:

  • Forensic scientists need to be critical thinkers. They must be able to analyze evidence and solve problems.
  • They need to be detail-oriented. Forensic scientists must pay attention to the most minor details to find clues that can help them solve a case.
  • They need to have good communication skills. Forensic scientists must be able to communicate their findings to police, lawyers, and other professionals.
  • Forensic scientists need to be good team players. They must be able to work with team members and other professionals to solve cases.
  • Forensic scientists also need a solid scientific background since they must use scientific principles and methods to analyze evidence.
  • They must be able to meet deadlines. Forensic scientists must work quickly and efficiently to get results before crucial evidence is lost.
  • Forensic scientists need dedication, persistence, and a passion for justice to succeed in their important work.

Employment for Forensic Scientists

Forensic scientists may find employment in various settings, including police departments, government agencies, and private laboratories. Many forensic scientists work for consulting firms that provide attorneys and insurance companies services. Others work in universities or medical examiners’ offices.

Most forensic scientists specialize in one area of forensics, such as ballistics, fingerprints, or DNA analysis. In small police departments, forensic scientists may be responsible for all areas of forensics. In larger departments, each forensic scientist usually specializes in one category.

According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, the field of forensic science should continue to grow by 16 percent from 2020 to 2030. This growth is primarily due to the increase in crimes being solved through DNA analysis.

While forensic scientists can enjoy job security, they should expect to work irregular hours and sometimes handle unpleasant situations. Crime scenes may be gruesome, and forensic scientists must process evidence in detail to preserve any helpful information.

Forensic Scientists Annual Salary

The BLS reports that forensic science technicians earned a median annual salary of $61,930 in May 2021. The lowest 10% made less than $37,670 per year, while the top 10% earned more than $103,430.

You should know the pay varies by employer, with the federal government, state and local governments, and scientific research and development services paying higher salaries than other industries.

Work Environment for Forensic Scientists

We can describe the work environment for forensic scientists as varied. Some work on their own, while others are part of a team. It covers various positions, including lab technicians, specialists, managers, and criminalists.

Crime labs may provide a forensic scientist with specialized equipment that includes microscopes and electron microscopes, laser printers, digital cameras, fingerprint scanners, and DNA analyzers. They also may have to use advanced software to store and analyze complex information.

Work schedules can also vary depending on whether a job is full-time or part-time and shift work.

Most jobs require forensic scientists to have a bachelor’s degree. Still, many employers prefer applicants with a master’s degree in forensic science or a related field.

The Pros and Cons of Working in Forensic Science

With a clear understanding of becoming a forensic scientist, you can decide if this career is a good fit for you.

The pros of becoming a forensic scientist include:

  • Working in a highly specialized field that allows you to apply scientific knowledge to real-world problems
  • Being able to put your investigative skills to use as you work to uncover the truth and bring justice to victim’s families
  • Enjoying a good salary and job stability, as the demand for forensic scientists should continue to grow in the coming years

The cons of becoming a forensic scientist include:

  • Working long hours, including evenings and weekends, as cases often require around-the-clock attention
  • Dealing with emotionally sensitive work, as you will view the details of heinous crimes regularly
  • Facing stiff competition for jobs, as the field is becoming increasingly popular and more people are vying for positions

What do you think? Is becoming a forensic scientist the right career move for you? Consider the pros and cons carefully before making your decision.

Who is the Ideal Candidate to Study Forensic Science?

Studying forensic science can be a rewarding and exciting career choice, especially for those with the proper skill set.Forensic scientists need to demonstrate strong critical thinking skills, excellent attention to detail, and competence in scientific methodologies.

A background in science, with a particular emphasis on chemistry, biology, and mathematics, is also essential. Forensic scientists must also be able to remain calm under pressure.

As evidence is often volatile or sensitive to environmental conditions, you must maintain a clear and focused mind while working under these demanding conditions.

Additionally, it would be best to communicate your findings and conclusions effectively with other investigative team members or legal professionals.

Lastly, aspiring forensic scientists undergo a background check and drug screening as part of hiring. This process ensures that those who enter this field are trustworthy enough to handle sensitive information and evidence.

Should I Pursue an Online Forensic Science Degree?

Pursuing an online forensic science degree can be a great way to gain the knowledge and skills to become a successful forensic scientist.

Online programs offer flexibility, allowing students to balance work and family responsibilities with their educational goals. Many schools also provide online students with access to specialized resources like virtual laboratories and faculty mentorships.

If you decide to pursue an online forensic science degree, it is vital to choose a program accredited by the Forensic Science Education Programs Accreditation Commission (FEPAC). Employers respect FEPAC accreditation. These programs will give you the best chance of success in your career.

What Are the Requirements for an Online Forensic Science Degree?

To enroll in an online forensic science degree program, you must have a high school diploma or equivalent. You may also be required to submit SAT or ACT scores and transcripts from any previous college coursework you have completed.

Some programs have additional admissions criteria, such as prerequisite coursework or experience in a related field. It is essential to carefully research the admissions requirements for your chosen program to ensure that you are eligible to apply.

What Can I Expect from an Online Forensic Science Degree Program?

When you enroll in an online forensic science degree program, you can expect to study various topics related to the field, including criminalistics, psychology, and physics.

You will also have the opportunity to gain hands-on experience through internships and practicum opportunities. Most programs culminate with a comprehensive capstone project or thesis.

Top Degree Choices for Forensic Scientists

Today, several types of forensic sciences help us in solving criminal cases. Depending on the particular area of forensic science you want to specialize in, there are several choices of degrees you can pursue. Given below are the top six:

1. Forensic Science

Forensic Science is the most typical and straightforward degree for forensic scientists. You can go for either a bachelor’s degree in forensic science or a master’s degree in this subject. A bachelor’s degree can be completed within four years of study, while a master’s takes two additional years. Once you finish your studies, you can join an internship program that lasts for about 12 months.

2. Chemistry

Science degrees are also crucial for forensic scientists. They need to know about the different chemical tests used to analyze evidence. They should know how to perform these tests properly. You can complete a bachelor’s degree in chemistry within four years.

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3. Criminal Justice

To successfully work as a forensic scientist, you will also need to understand criminal justice. This field of study includes understanding the various laws and procedures involved in resolving criminal cases.

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4. Computer Science or Engineering

Forensic scientists need to have a working knowledge of computers and engineering. These skills are essential when handling digital evidence, such as emails and text messages.


5. Statistics or Mathematics

Forensic scientists need to understand statistics and mathematics to analyze large amounts of data and draw reliable conclusions.

6. Biology or Life Sciences

Biology or Life Sciences degrees are necessary for analyzing biological evidence found at crime scenes, such as blood and hair samples.

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What Certificates Are Beneficial for Forensic Scientists?

Getting certified in forensic science can help advance your career and improve your job prospects. There are several certificates that a forensic scientist can obtain, each with its own set of requirements.

Certified Forensic Consultant (CFC)

The American College of Forensic Examiners International offers the CFC certification. This certificate requires a candidate to have at least three years of experience in forensic science. Additionally, candidates must have completed graduate studies in criminology or criminal justice and pass an exam to become certified as a CFC.

Certified Forensic Computer Examiner (CFCE)

The American College of Forensic Examiners International also offers the CFCE. Forensic computer examiners must be certified in at least one area of forensic science and have completed a minimum of five years’ experience to qualify for this certificate. In addition to completing an examination, candidates must complete continuing education courses every year to maintain their certification.

Certified Forensic Examiner (CFE)

The CFE credential is offered by the International Association of Certified Fraud Examiners. It requires candidates to have at least two years of experience in fraud examinations.

Candidates must also pass an exam covering white-collar crime, investigation techniques, and report writing. CFEs must complete at least 20 hours of continuing education every year to maintain their certification.

Certified Information Systems Security Professional (CISSP)

The CISSP credential is offered by the International Information Systems Security Certification Consortium. It is one of the most popular certificates for information security professionals.

To qualify for the CISSP, candidates must have at least five years of experience in information security and an undergraduate degree or four years’ experience with a master’s degree. Candidates must also pass an exam covering access control systems, cryptography, and network security.

Certified Forensic Interviewer (CFI)

The American Polygraph Association offers the CFI certificate, designed for those who specialize in interviewing and interrogating suspects.

To obtain this certification, candidates must have four years of experience as investigators or law enforcement officers. In addition to passing a written exam, CFI candidates must also pass a three-part practical exam that measures their interviewing skills.

Certified Forensic Analyst (CFA)

The CFA credential is overseen by the American Board of Criminalistics and designed for those who specialize in blood, drug, and controlled substance analysis.

Candidates for this certificate must either hold a bachelor’s degree in chemistry with a concentration in forensics or pass the North American Forensic Laboratory Accreditation Program’s certification examination. Candidates must also complete a test covering analytical approaches, quality assurance, and statistics.

Certified Medical Investigators (CMI)

The American College of Medical Examiners provides the CMI credential, designed for those who investigate deaths.

To apply for certification, applicants must have a bachelor’s degree or four years of experience in the death investigation. Candidates must also complete an examination covering postmortem examinations, investigation techniques, and legal aspects of death investigations.

These are just a sample of the many professional credentials available to forensic scientists. While not all of these credentials are required to work in the field, they can certainly help to improve your chances of getting hired or promoted. Moreover, holding one or more of these credentials can make you eligible for higher pay.

How to Advance in Forensic Science

With experience, you may advance to positions such as supervisor, manager, or director of a forensic science laboratory. Some forensic scientists also become consultants or testify in court as expert witnesses.

Some forensic scientists advance their careers by becoming medical examiners or coroners. They must complete additional training and earn a license to practice medicine in the jurisdiction where they want to work.

Overall, becoming a forensic scientist can be an exciting and rewarding career path, with plenty of professional growth and advancement opportunities.

Learn How to Become a Forensic Scientist Today!

Forensic science is a growing field with plenty of career growth and advancement opportunities. Pursuing an online forensic science degree can give you the knowledge and skills to succeed in this exciting field.

With planning, hard work, and passion for the field, you can advance in forensic science and enjoy a rewarding career path.

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